Key Components for Effective Online Therapy: A Comprehensive Look

Psychotherapist having online therapy session with their client

Charting the Course: An Introduction to the Dynamics of Online Therapy

Therapy has adapted to suit our changing lives in an increasingly digital world. The emergence and growth of online therapy offer a wealth of opportunities for individuals to engage in therapy from the comfort of their homes. With this convenience and accessibility, it becomes crucial to understand what contributes to effective therapy, particularly in an online setting.

Practical therapeutic components are the backbone of successful therapy. These elements include therapist competence and expertise, client engagement, evidence-based treatment approaches, therapist empathy, cultural competence, outcome monitoring and feedback, client-therapist match, and confidentiality and trust. Each plays a critical role in the therapy process, impacting the success of the therapeutic journey.

The research underscores the value of these components. For example, Middlemass et al. (2012) highlight the importance of patient control and interaction, suggesting it may stimulate positive experiences of online therapy (Middlemass et al., 2012). Meanwhile, a systematic review by Chipps et al. (2020) found online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy effective in reducing symptoms of certain mental health disorders, with better results and longer-lasting positive effects when a therapist-client relationship was present (Chipps et al., 2020).

Moreover, a comprehensive review and meta-analysis conducted by Barak et al. (2008) found that Internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions have a medium effect size, similar to the average effect size of traditional, face-to-face therapy (Barak et al., 2008). This means that the effectiveness of online therapy is comparable to that of traditional therapy when applying the same therapeutic components.

As we navigate this blog post, we’ll explore each component in detail. We’ll discuss their importance, how they contribute to successful therapy, and how they are incorporated into my online therapy practice. As potential clients considering online therapy, understanding these components will help you get the most out of your therapy experience.

Therapist Competence and Expertise

The role of the therapist is critical in ensuring the success of therapy. A competent and experienced therapist can dramatically improve therapy outcomes, providing guidance and facilitating growth and recovery for clients. Therapist competence involves a deep understanding of therapeutic techniques, sound clinical judgment, effective decision-making, and creating a nurturing and supportive environment for clients.

A wealth of research backs the importance of therapist competence. A study by Kuyken and Tsivrikos (2008) found that therapist competence is associated with improved therapy outcomes, and more competent therapists have better patient outcomes, regardless of patient comorbidity (Kuyken & Tsivrikos, 2008). In addition, James et al. (2001) found that competence improves over time and with experience, emphasizing the value of continuous professional development (James et al., 2001).

Moreover, the study by Jennings and Skovholt (1999) suggests that in addition to cognitive attributes, researchers studying therapist expertise may want to explore emotional and relational characteristics (Jennings & Skovholt, 1999). This underscores that therapy is as much about human connection and emotional understanding as it is about cognitive and technical skills. Additionally, Najavits and Weiss (1994) identified solid interpersonal skills as a primary therapist characteristic associated with higher effectiveness (Najavits & Weiss, 1994).

I am committed to maintaining and enhancing my competence and expertise as a therapist. I believe in staying updated with the latest research and therapeutic approaches, continually learning, and refining my skills. My approach to therapy is deeply rooted in empathy, understanding, and effective communication. In addition, I strive to foster a safe and supportive environment that nurtures growth and healing. This commitment to professional development and improvement enhances my ability to provide effective therapy and contributes to successful therapeutic outcomes for my clients.

Client Engagement

An essential component of effective therapy is client engagement. This multi-faceted concept encompasses active participation in sessions, diligent practice of skills learned in therapy, and thoughtful self-reflection. The more engaged clients are, the more likely they will benefit from therapy.

Research supports the crucial role of client engagement in therapy. For example, Dearing et al. (2005) found that client engagement variables indirectly relate to therapy outcomes using client satisfaction (Dearing et al., 2005). In other words, when clients are actively engaged, they are more likely to be satisfied with therapy, which, in turn, enhances therapy outcomes.

Similarly, Young (2005) underscored the value of understanding client attitudes toward online counselling to guide treatment (Young, 2005). By recognizing and addressing clients’ unique perspectives and needs, therapists can foster client engagement and improve therapy outcomes. D’Cruz et al. (2016) highlighted the importance of a client-centred approach to practice, viewing engagement as a dynamic process between the client and the therapist (D’Cruz et al., 2016).

In online therapy, staying engaged might seem challenging due to the lack of physical presence. However, here are some suggestions to help you stay engaged:

Active Participation: Actively participate in your sessions. Ask questions, discuss your feelings and experiences, and provide feedback to your therapist.

Practice Skills: Apply the skills and techniques learned in therapy to your daily life. Practice makes perfect, and consistently practicing these skills can reinforce learning and promote growth.

Self-reflection: Make time for self-reflection outside of your therapy sessions. Reflecting on your feelings, experiences, and progress can enhance your understanding and promote self-awareness.

Remember, therapy is a partnership; your active involvement is crucial to success. By remaining engaged, you can enhance your therapy experience and accelerate your journey toward well-being.

Evidence-Based Treatment Approaches

The heart of successful therapy often lies in using evidence-based treatment approaches. These therapies have been scientifically studied and shown to produce beneficial results. The evidence-based nature of these therapies assures clients that they are receiving a treatment validated by rigorous research and likely to be effective.

While a significant portion of academic focus is on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), other evidence-based treatment approaches have also demonstrated favourable outcomes. In my practice, I utilize therapies that, although they might not be the primary focus of mainstream research, are nevertheless well-researched and have consistently shown positive outcomes.

One such approach is Sensorimotor Psychotherapy. While Sensorimotor Psychotherapy may not be classified as “evidence-based,” it is rooted in established and evidence-based forms of mental health therapy, including psychodynamic psychotherapy, gestalt therapy, and CBT (Ogden et al., 2006). This therapy has been influential in treating substance use disorder, different types of abuse, depression, anxiety, anger, and relationship issues.

Another evidence-based treatment I employ is Somatic Experiencing (SE). A study published in the European Journal of Psychotraumatology (2021) provided preliminary evidence for the positive effects of SE on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms (Brom et al., 2021). SE has also demonstrated a positive impact on affective and somatic symptoms and measures of well-being in both traumatized and non-traumatized samples.

I also incorporate Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Trauma-informed Stabilization Treatment. Like the others, these modalities are rooted in research and have shown promise in treating various mental health conditions, particularly those related to trauma.

While my therapeutic approaches might differ from the traditional CBT-focused methodologies, they remain solidly grounded in research and have been proven to produce favourable outcomes when paired with the critical components of online therapy.

Experiencing Empathy: The Heart of Online Therapy

Empathy in therapy is more than just understanding a client’s perspective or feelings. It is about genuinely experiencing those feelings alongside the client. This shared experience is essential to the therapeutic process and helps establish a solid therapeutic relationship.

Empathy has multiple benefits in therapy. Firstly, it fosters understanding. When therapists show genuine empathy, clients feel their experiences are understood and validated. Secondly, empathy creates comfort. In an empathetic therapeutic environment, clients often feel more comfortable expressing their thoughts, feelings, and experiences, even when challenging or painful.

Research by Valentino (2006) found that empathy plays a vital role in the successful outcome of the therapeutic process. Another study published in The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development provides strong evidence that empathy is essential to the therapeutic alliance across theories (Feller & Cottone, 2003). Moreover, a paper in the Journal of Counseling and Development affirms that empathy is integral to treatment strategies and interventions across the counselling process (Clark, 2010).

In my online therapy practice, I place a significant emphasis on empathy. I aim to truly understand and resonate with the experiences and emotions of my clients. This approach helps create an environment where clients feel heard, validated, and comforted, ultimately fostering a solid and effective therapeutic relationship.

Embracing Cultural Competence: The Power of Diversity in Online Therapy

Cultural competence is crucial in therapy, especially when working with diverse populations such as trans* or queer individuals. It goes beyond merely understanding different cultural backgrounds. It involves respecting and incorporating the client’s cultural experiences into the therapeutic process, creating a more effective therapeutic relationship.

Recognizing and valuing a client’s cultural background can significantly enhance the therapeutic process. As described in the Shifting Cultural Lenses model, cultural competence involves the therapist shifting between their cultural perspectives and clients, thereby co-constructing shared narratives (López, Sheinbaum et al., 2020). This approach enhances the therapeutic alliance, aiding in exploring and understanding issues within a culturally relevant context.

Cultural competence is central to professionalism and quality and is a fundamental building block of clinical care. It also plays a pivotal role in the treatment of specific issues. For instance, the literature on child sexual abuse within Arab-American populations demonstrates how cultural aspects, such as values about shame, honour, and the stigma attached to mental health, influence responses to abuse (Haboush & Alyan, 2013).

In my practice, I am committed to cultural competence. Therefore, I consciously try to understand and respect my clients’ cultural backgrounds. I also utilize instruments like the Multicultural Therapy Competency Inventory-Client Version (MTCI-CV) to assess my clients’ perceptions of my multicultural competence, as this contributes to client satisfaction and goal attainment in online therapy (Cole, Piercy, Wolfe, & West, 2014).

Working with trans* or queer individuals demands an extension of cultural competence to incorporate gender sensitivity, improving the effectiveness of therapy (Nuttbrock, 2012). Furthermore, I strive to avoid reinforcing the hetero- and gender-normative status quo, understanding that cultural competence with LGBTQ+ patients requires learning with these individuals rather than just about them (Baker & Beagan, 2014). Through this commitment to cultural competence, I aim to provide adequate services in an increasingly diverse society.

Sharpening Outcome Monitoring & Feedback: Your Secret Weapon in Online Therapy

Outcome monitoring and feedback play a crucial role in the therapeutic process. They offer an avenue for assessing therapeutic interventions’ effectiveness and adjusting them as needed. These processes can improve treatment outcomes (Carlier, Kovacs et al., 2017).

Outcome measures are particularly beneficial in monitoring the quality and effectiveness of mental health services (Kwan & Rickwood, 2015)). In my online therapy practice, I use these measures for routine assessment and as a feedback monitoring system to improve client outcomes. In addition, recognizing the need for measures tailored to diverse age ranges, I ensure the measures used are relevant and appropriate for my clients. This approach ensures that my therapy interventions are impactful but also relevant and age-appropriate.

Improving healthcare encounters and communication is particularly vital when working with underserved populations, such as transgender individuals (Redfern & Sinclair, 2014)). My approach involves creating open lines of communication between myself and my clients and fostering an environment conducive to providing transgender patient care. In addition, I focus on enhancing patient satisfaction through culturally competent health care, quality assurance, and patient feedback.

In line with the emphasis on patient-reported outcome measures, I ensure the validity and reliability of the instruments I use to assess my therapy sessions’ outcomes (Patient-reported outcome measures, n.d.). This approach ensures accurate reporting of my client’s experiences, enhancing the therapeutic process. In cases where no valid outcome measure exists, I adapt existing instruments or develop new ones to accurately evaluate the results of my therapy interventions.

Outcome monitoring and feedback are essential components of my online therapy practice. They provide invaluable insights that inform my therapeutic interventions, leading to improved therapy outcomes and a better therapeutic experience for my clients.

Finding Your Perfect Match: The Importance of Client-Therapist Match in Online Therapy

A significant component of successful therapy is a good client-therapist match. Matching in terms of personality, communication style, and shared values can foster a more potent therapeutic alliance, leading to more effective outcomes. Therefore, potential clients are encouraged to consider these factors when seeking therapy carefully.

Therapy with lesbian and gay clients emphasizes the role of therapy practices and the therapy relationship in shaping clients’ perceptions of their therapist (Kelley, 2015)). Therapist understanding and acceptance of clients’ sexual orientations can contribute to a positive therapy relationship, even when the therapist does not share the same sexual orientation as the client. This points to the importance of a therapist-client match in values, empathy, and understanding.

Transgender people’s experience with talking therapies further underscores the importance of a strong client-therapist match (Applegarth & Nuttall, 2016)). The therapeutic relationship can be critical in helping transgender clients become comfortable with their gender and facilitate their movement beyond therapy. Therefore, iterapists must adopt an affirmative approach to the individual’s unique experience of gender to cultivate a positive and supportive therapeutic relationship.

In providing mental health care for transgender adults and loved ones, a transgender-affirmative approach, client-centred care, and a commitment to harm reduction are fundamental guiding principles (Bockting, Knudson, & Goldberg, 2006). These principles underline the need for a robust therapist-client match that aligns with the client’s identity and experiences.

The experiences of transgender Australians in mental healthcare further highlight the importance of a supportive and understanding therapist (Halliday & Caltabiano, 2020). Their experiences suggest that therapists knowledgeable and sensitive to transgender issues can contribute to more positive therapy outcomes. However, it is equally essential for therapists to be aware of and counteract any potential discrimination in healthcare settings.

Transgender help-seekers with different marginalized identities may be at higher risk for healthcare discrimination or care from providers with limited trans-competence (Romanelli & Lindsey, 2020). These findings emphasize the importance of the therapist’s understanding, acceptance, and competence in working with transgender clients and other marginalized identities.

In conclusion, a good client-therapist match is vital for successful therapy. It helps to foster a solid therapeutic alliance, leading to more effective therapy outcomes. Clients are therefore encouraged to consider the therapist’s personality, communication style, values, and competency when seeking therapy.

Upholding Confidentiality and Trust: The Pillars of Successful Online Therapy

Confidentiality and trust serve as the bedrock of successful therapeutic relationships. They create a safe space for clients to share their experiences, feelings, and thoughts without fear of judgment or exposure. In an online therapy context, upholding these values is of utmost importance to ensure the efficacy and integrity of the therapy process.

Roback and Shelton’s study on the effects of confidentiality limitations on the psychotherapeutic process reveals that perceived confidentiality limitations can deter people from seeking therapy and inhibit self-disclosures once in treatment (Roback & Shelton, 2013). Client’s confidence in their therapist’s ability to maintain confidentiality is essential for fostering open communication, a critical element of therapeutic progress. When clients are assured of their privacy, they are more likely to share openly and honestly, paving the way for effective therapeutic interventions.

Men (2014) discussed the principle of confidentiality and the therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy and further emphasized the role of confidentiality in therapy. The principle of confidentiality not only upholds clients’ rights to privacy but also cultivates a therapeutic relationship characterized by trust and respect. This principle is integral to modern psychotherapy, underscoring the importance of preserving confidentiality in any therapy setting, including online therapy.

As an online therapy practitioner, it is crucial to reaffirm the commitment to upholding confidentiality and fostering trust. Online therapy platforms should incorporate stringent security measures to protect clients’ information. Furthermore, clear communication about confidentiality policies can assure clients of their privacy and encourage open and honest discussions during therapy sessions. Clients should feel confident that their personal stories, struggles, and successes are treated with respect and privacy, ultimately creating a trustworthy and beneficial therapeutic relationship.

In summary, confidentiality and trust are indispensable in therapy. They help create a safe and supportive environment that encourages clients to fully engage in the therapeutic process, promoting better therapeutic outcomes. As such, practitioners should consistently prioritize these elements, particularly in an online therapy setting.

Wrapping it Up: The Vital Importance of Core Elements in Successful Online Therapy

Effective face-to-face or online therapy relies on several key components to support clients on their journey to improved mental health. This blog post examined the importance of client-centred therapy, therapeutic alliance, outcome monitoring and feedback, client-therapist match, and confidentiality and trust. These elements play a significant role in successful therapy outcomes and are fundamental to robust online therapy practice.

Client-centred therapy is crucial to acknowledging and respecting each client’s unique experiences and fostering empathy and understanding. The therapeutic alliance is a vital connection that bolsters the effectiveness of therapy by developing a strong rapport between therapist and client. Outcome monitoring and feedback contribute to the continual refinement of therapy methods, ensuring they align with the client’s evolving needs and progress. A positive client-therapist match can enhance therapy outcomes by fostering a more potent therapeutic alliance, a match that takes into account factors such as personality, communication style, and values. Finally, the pillars of confidentiality and trust create a safe and secure space for clients to share their experiences and engage fully in the therapeutic process.

As potential clients navigate the therapy world, particularly online therapy, they must consider these factors. Ensuring the therapy you engage with embodies these elements will maximize the chances of a positive and beneficial therapeutic experience. It’s also crucial to remember that the therapy process is a journey that requires openness, patience, and resilience.

In my online therapy practice, I am committed to embodying these elements of effective therapy. My practice seeks to create a safe, inclusive, compassionate space that values each client’s unique experience. Through client-centred therapy, developing a solid therapeutic alliance, regular outcome monitoring and feedback, careful consideration of client-therapist matching, and unwavering respect for confidentiality and trust, I aim to support clients as they navigate their mental health journeys.

The journey to improved mental health can often be challenging, but with the proper guidance and support, it is a journey that can lead to profound personal growth and improved quality of life. Consider these factors when you seek therapy, primarily online, and remember that you are not alone on this journey.


(2021). Findings provide preliminary evidence for positive effects of SE on PTSD-related symptoms. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 12(1), 1929023.

Valentino, R. (2006). Attitudes towards Cross-Cultural Empathy in Music Therapy. Music Therapy Perspectives.

Feller, C., & Cottone, R. (2003). The Importance of Empathy in the Therapeutic Alliance. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development.

Clark, A. (2010). Empathy: An Integral Model in the Counseling Process. Journal of Counseling and Development.

López, S., Ribas, A., Sheinbaum, T., Santos, M., Benalcázar, A., Garro, L., … & Kopelowicz, A. (2020). Defining and assessing key behavioral indicators of the Shifting Cultural Lenses model of cultural competence. Transcultural Psychiatry.

Betancourt, J., & Green, A. (2010). Commentary: linking cultural competence training to improved health outcomes: perspectives from the field. Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges.

Haboush, K., & Alyan, H. (2013). “Who Can You Tell?” Features of Arab Culture That Influence Conceptualization and Treatment of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.

Cole, E., Piercy, F., Wolfe, E., & West, J. (2014). Development of the Multicultural Therapy Competency Inventory-Client Version. Contemporary Family Therapy.

Nuttbrock, L. (2012). Culturally Competent Substance Abuse Treatment with Transgender Persons. Journal of Addictive Diseases.

Baker, K., & Beagan, B. (2014). Making assumptions, making space: an anthropological critique of cultural competency and its relevance to queer patients. Medical anthropology quarterly.

Carlier, I., Kovacs, V., Noorden, M., Feltz-Cornelis, C., Mooij, N., Maaren, Y., … & Giltay, E. (2017). Evaluating the Responsiveness to Therapeutic Change with Routine Outcome Monitoring: A Comparison of the Symptom Questionnaire-48 (SQ-48) with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45). Clinical psychology & psychotherapy.

Kwan, B., & Rickwood, D. (2015). A systematic review of mental health outcome measures for young people aged 12 to 25 years. BMC Psychiatry.

Redfern, J., & Sinclair, B. (2014). Improving health care encounters and communication with transgender patients. Journal of Communication in Healthcare.

Andréasson, M., Georgas, K., Elander, A., & Selvaggi, G. (2018). Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Used in Gender Confirmation Surgery: A Systematic Review. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Kelley, F. (2015). The therapy relationship with lesbian and gay clients. Psychotherapy.

Applegarth, G., & Nuttall, J. (2016). The lived experience of transgender people of talking therapies. International Journal of Transgenderism.

Bockting, W., Knudson, G., & Goldberg, J. (2006). Counseling and Mental Health Care for Transgender Adults and Loved Ones. International Journal of Transgenderism.

Halliday, L., & Caltabiano, N. (2020). Transgender Experience of Mental Healthcare in Australia. Psychology.

Romanelli, M., & Lindsey, M. (2020). Patterns of Healthcare Discrimination Among Transgender Help-Seekers. American journal of preventive medicine.

Disclaimer: This blog shares general information only, not professional advice or recommendations. Consult healthcare providers for personal guidance. Decisions based on content are the reader's responsibility. Thank you.

Clayre runs a group practice of three queer and trans therapists, including youth therapist Audrey Wolfe, RCC, LGBT therapist Camber Giberson, RCC, CCC, and gender-affirming therapist Clayre Sessoms, RP, RCT, RCC, CCC, ATR-P. Work with us: book a session.

Related Posts